Glossary

Transport


Air

B24 Liberator bomber - Photo 4 engine heavy bomber airplane widely used by the Allies. Entered service 1943. 8 - 10 crew. Wing span 33.53 metres. Length 20.47 metres. Weight (unladen) 17,237 kg. Ceiling 8,534 metres. Maximum range 3,379 km. Speed 483 km/h. Armament 10 x .5-in machine-guns and up to 5,806 kg of bombs. AWM id no. 128030

Beaufort bomber - Photo All metal medium bomber powered by two 1,200 hp Pratt and Whitney Wasps. Widely used by the Allies in the Pacific to attack shipping and land targets. 700 were produced between 1938 and 1944 (most in Australia). Crew of 4. Wing span 17.63m (57 feet, 10 inches). Length 13.49 metres (44 feet, 5 inches); height 4.83 metres (12 feet, 5 inches). Weight (unladen) 6,382 kg (14,070 lb), loaded 10,206 kg (22,500 lb). Endurance 6 hours. Maximum range 1700 km. Maximum speed 431 km/h (233 kt). Armament 990 kg (2000 lb) bomb load / torpedo. 0.303 inch machine guns in turret, nose or wing (later 0.5 inch). AWM id no. OG3364

Catalina reconnaissance - Photo Long range reconnaissance flying boat / amphibian widely used by the Allies. Designed in California, U.S.A. Length 10.45 metres (63 feet 10 inches). Wingspan 31.70 metres (104 feet). Height 5.65 metres (18 feet 10 inches). Weight empty 7,950 kg (17,526 lb), loaded 15,422 kg (34,000 lb). All metal, stressed-skin construction. Maximum speed 315 km/h (170 knots); cruising speed 188 km/h (102 knots); initial climb 201 metres (660 feet)/min; range 4989 km (2694 nautical miles). Ceiling 18,100 feet (5517 metres). Powered by two 1,200 hp Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasp R-1830 radial engines. Crew : 8 to 9. Bomb load 1814 kg (4,000 lb). Armed with two 0.303 inch calibre bow turret machine guns, two 0.5 inch machine guns in both side blisters and one 0.303 inch gun in a central position. Known as the Black Cat in the R.A.A.F. since almost all were painted midnight black. It was said that the Black Cat climbed at 90 miles/hr, flew level at 90 miles/hr and dove at 90 miles/hr. Duties included rescue of downed airmen, shadowing enemy convoys, medical supplies transport, mine laying and inserting agents into enemy territory. Unarmed Catalinas (to save weight and increase range) were used for military mail runs across the Indian Ocean. AWM id no. 128030

DC3 transport - Photo (37 Squadron RAAF on Labuan Island, Borneo) Unarmed but extremely tough general transport 2 engine airplane widely used by the Allies to transport, drop and evacuate troops and stores as well as medical evacuations and towing gliders. Capacity : 28 troops, 18 stretchers or 3,400 kg freight. Maximum speed 368 km/h (cruise 280 km/h). Maximum range 2,414 km. Service ceiling 7,315 metres. Length 19.62 metres. Wing span 28.95 metres. Weight (unladen) 8,250 kg. Two flight crew. A common sight in the skies of New Guinea for the troops. Also referred to as a "Gooney Bird", Skytrain C-47 Datoka (by the U.S. military) and Biscuit Bomber (by the troops). The RAAF first flew the aircraft in September 1939 when it requisitioned four DC-3s from Australian National Airways (ANA). The aircraft served with No. 8 Squadron, based in Canberra, and were used for coastal patrols and transport duties. The squadron flew the aircraft for only a few months, before returning them to ANA between February and June 1940. The purchase of ten DC-2 aircraft in August 1940 then filled the gap until further supplies of DC-3s could be obtained. In 1941 and 1942, following Japan’s entry into the war, Australia’s civilian airlines and charter operators provided emergency DC-3s to the RAAF for operations in Papua and New Guinea. Similarly, in May 1943 the United States Army Air Force lent about two-dozen DC-3s to the RAAF while the Australian fleet of C-47s was built up. Under lend lease, between February 1943 and August 1945 the RAAF received 124 C-47s. These aircraft equipped six operational transport squadrons (33, 34, 35, 36, 37, and 38), plus other smaller units. RAAF Squadrons continued to operate Dakotas after the war: No. 37 until June 1948, No. 36 until 1958, and No. 38 until 1964. Other units continued to fly Dakotas for longer. In 1949 to 1950 two Dakotas were transferred to the RAN, which received another two aircraft in 1968. Information courtesy of the Australian War Memorial. AWM id no. P03972.001

Glenn-Martin bomber - Photo Bomber used by the Vichy French in Syria. AWM id no. 021118

Hudson bomber - Photo Allied reconnaissance aircraft / light bomber. Entered service 1940. 4 - 5 crew. Wing span 19.96 metres. Length 13.5 metres. Weight (unladen) 5,969 kg. Ceiling 7,620 metres. Maximum range 2,180 km. Speed 406 km/h. Armament up to 7 x .303 inch machine-guns and 726 kg of bombs. AWM id no. AC0069

Zero fighter - Photo Japanese single engined fighter aircraft Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero in flight over Brisbane, Queensland. The aeroplane was rebuilt at Eagle Farm (Brisbane) by Technical Air Intelligence Unit (combined 5th Air Force, United States Navy and RAAF), from parts of three wrecks recovered in the Buna area in January 1943. The pilot is Captain William O Farrior, USAF. AWM id no. AC0152

Land

DUKW amphibian - Photo Amphibious car / boat used by the Allies. AWM id no. 083077

Type 95 Ha-Go light tank - Photo Japanese Type 95 Ha-Go light tank. AWM id no. 097336

R-35 light tank - Photo Syria circa 1941. Captured French Renault R-35 light tank repaired and subsequently used in combat by the Allies. (Donor N. Reynolds). AWM id no. P00064.024

Water

S.S. Andes - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Harland & Wolff in Yard 1005, Belfast, Ireland. Launched 07/03/1939. Completed 24/09/1939. 25,688 tons. Speed 21 knots. Length 204.0 metres. Beam 25.5 metres. Twin screws. Used as Allied troopship until actually delivered to owners 1947. Royal Mail Lines' services from United Kingdom to South America. Later used as cruise liner. Sold for scrap 07/05/1971 to Van Heyghen Freres at Ghent, Belgium. AWM id no. 030112/01A

Awa Maru - Photo Passenger / cargo ship built by Mitsubishi in Yard 770, Nagasaki, Japan. Launched 24/08/1942. Completed 05/03/1943. Displacement 11,249 tons. Speed 17 knots. Length 153.0 metres. Beam 20.0 metres. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. 26/12/1944 left Singapore as part of Convoy HI-84 and carried about 525 British, American and Australian P.O.W.s, arriving in Moji, Japan 13/01/1945. Torpedoed and sunk on 01/04/1945 in position 24º41'N, 119º12'E by the Balao class submarine U.S.S. Queenfish (SS-393).

U.S.S. Barb (SS-220) - Photo Gato class diesel/electric submarine built by Groton at Connecticut, U.S.A. Laid down 07/06/1941. Launched 02/04/1942. Displacement 1,549 tons. Speed 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged. Endurance 75 days. Range 11,000 nautical miles surfaced (at 10 knots). Draft 17 feet. Length 311 feet, 9 inches. Beam 27 feet, 3 inches. Test depth 300 feet. Complement 6 officers, 54 enlisted men. Armament 10 x 21 inch torpedo tubes (six forward, four aft), 24 torpedoes storage capacity, 1 x 3 inch / 50 caliber deck gun, Bofors 40mm and Oerlikon 20mm cannon. Commissioned 08/07/1942. Reconnaissance duties invasion of North Africa. Patrols against Axis blockade runners in European waters then operated in the Pacific. Between March 1944 / August 1945 sank 17 enemy vessels totaling 96,628 tons (16/09/1944 sank Unyo). 15/09/1944 2/2 Pioneer rescued by Barb : VX34456 L. G. Cornelius after Rakuyo Maru torpedoed 12/09/1944. 11th patrol 19/12/1944 / 15/02/1945 Formosa Straits and East China Sea, Shanghai to Kam Kit (sank four Japanese merchant ships and numerous enemy small craft. 22–23/01/1945 penetrated Namkwan Harbor to attack convoy of 30 enemy ships at anchor). 12th patrol Sea of Okhotsk (used rockets against towns Shari, Hokkaido, Shikuka, Kashiho and Shiritoru on Karafuto. Bombarded and destroyed 60 percent of town of Kaihyo To. Landed party to blow up train. Placed in reserve 09/03/1946. Decommissioned 12/02/1947. Recommissioned 03/12/1951. Served with Atlantic Fleet and operated out of Key West, Florida. Decommissioned 05/02/1954 for Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program conversion. Recommissioned 03/08/1954. Served with Atlantic Fleet. Decommissioned 13/12/1954, loaned to Italy under Mutual Defense Assistance Program and renamed Enrico Tazzoli (S-511) by the Italian Navy. 1972 Sold for scrap.

Bioki Maru - Name used by P.O.W.s literally means "sick ship" but actually called Rashin Maru during World War 2. Cargo ship built by Canadian Vickers in Yard 69, Montreal, Canada. Completed August 1919 as Canadian Seigneur. Displacement 5,757 tons. Speed 11 knots. Length 122.1 metres. Beam 15.9 metres. Renamed 1933 to Rashin Maru. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Torpedoed and sunk on 08/08/1945 off northeastern Korea in position 41º15'N, 131º19'E by the Gato class submarine USS Pargo (SS-264) under command of Lieutenant Commander David Bonar Bell. No photo available.

Bontekoe - Photo Dutch KPM shipping line passenger / cargo ship built by Smit, J. & K. at Yard 689, Kinderdijk, Netherlands. Completed February 1923. Displacement 4,668 tons. Length 116.9 metres. Beam 15.1 metres. Speed 12 knots. Used as Allied troopship in South West Pacific 1942-1945. Arrived 10/02/1959 at Hong Kong for breaking up.

H.M.A.T. Canberra - Photo (Coaling at Colombo Harbour, Ceylon) 7,707 ton passenger / cargo ship. Built by Stephen at Yard 452, Linthouse, U.K. for Australian Steamships Ltd (Howard Smith), Melbourne, Victoria. Launched 09/11/1912. Completed March 1913. Length 125 metres. Beam 17.4 metres. Speed 15 knots. Used as Allied troopship in the Mediterranean and South West Pacific (for example, Townsville, QLD to Port Moresby, New Guinea). Out of service 1947. Renamed 1954 to Espana. Scrapped October 1959 in Dominican Republic. AWM id no. C03333

H.M.A.S. Cessnock - Photo (1942) Bathurst class minesweeper (corvette). Built by Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company. Laid down 16/04/1941. Launched 17/10/1941. Commissioned 26/01/1942. Displacement 650 tons. Speed 15 knots. Length 57 metres. Beam 9.4 metres. Draught 2.6 metres. 85 crew. 1,750 horsepower. Escort for Allied shipping between Townsville and New Guinea for several months to September 1942. October 1942 to November 1942 on anti-submarine patrol off Western Australia. Based in Kenya 16/12/1942 on local escort duty. Escorted Allied convoys in Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea 1943 to 1944. Escorted Pacific convoys February to August 1945. Present in Tokyo Bay when surrender signed. Decommissioned 12/07/1946. Sold for scrap 23/04/1947 to Nan Chiao Shipping and Salvage Company, Shanghai, China. AWM id no. 300532

U.S.S. Chenango (CVE-28) - Photo Tanker built by Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company at Yard 174 in Chester, Philadelphia, U.S.A. Launched 01/04/1939 as Esso New Orleans. Commissioned 20/06/1941 by U.S. Navy as oiler AO-31. Displacement 11,340 tons. Speed 18 knots. Length 168.6 metres. Beam 22.9 metres. Operated : Naval Transportation Service in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific. Decommissioned 16/03/1942 at New York for conversion to escort carrier. Recommissioned 19/09/1942 as ACV-28. Operated : Torch assault force (North Africa), invasion and occupation of the Solomons. Redesignated 15/07/1943 CVE-28. Operated : Gilbert Islands invasion force, invasion of Tarawa, Marshalls Islands invasion, landings at Aitape and Hollandia, invasion of the Marianas, invasion of Morotai, Philipines, invasion of Okinawa. Used to support occupation of Japan and repatriate 1,900 Allied prisoners of war and 1,500 civilians from slave labor camps. Reclassified 12/06/1955 CVHE-28. Sold 12/02/1960. Broken up Bilbao, Spain August 1962. AWM id no. P01819.004

Circassia - Photo Passenger ship built by Fairfield at Yard 661 in Govan, Scotland, United Kingdom. Launched 08/06/1937. Completed October 1937. Displacement 11,136 tons. Speed 16.5 knots. Length 147.4 metres. Beam 20.2 metres. Used to repatriate Allied prisoners of war. Broken up 25/04/1966 at Alicante, Spain.

Clan Macauley - Photo Cameron class cargo ship of the Clan Line. Five of the fourteen ships in the 7,650 – 10,900 ton class were sunk by enemy action in World War 2. Length 141–149 metres. Beam 19 metres. Draft 9.1 metres. Speed 16 to 17.5 knots. 78 crew. 2 steam triple expansion and exhaust turbines. Launched 1936. Bombed at Malta in World War 2. Broken up 1963.

Dainichi Maru - Photo Built by Mitsui in Yard 35, Tamano, Japan. Completed January 1922 as Ibukisan Maru. Displacement 5,821 tons. Length 117.3 metres. Beam 15.5 metres. Speed 11 knots. Renamed 1935 to Dainichi Maru. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Torpedoed and sunk on 08/10/1943 in position 18º24'N, 119º09'E.

S.S. De Klerk - Photo Dutch passenger / cargo ship. Built by Nederlandsche Scheepsbow, Maatschappij, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Launched 13/10/1900. Completed December 1900. 2,035 tons. Length 91.4 metres. Beam 12.3 metres. Speed 12 knots. Single screw. Converted January 1942 to Royal Dutch Navy troopship at Tjilatjap but was scuttled at Tandjong Priok, West Malaysia on 02/03/1942 to prevent use by the enemy. Salvaged by Japanese Navy 28/11/1942. Renamed 1943 to Imbari Maru and used as hellship to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Struck Japanese mine and sank on 16/09/1944 in position 05º08'N, 115º05'E while transporting 1210 personnel from Singapore to the Philippines (339 lives lost).

H.M.T. Duntroon - Photo Passenger ship. Built by Swan Hunter at Low Walker, U.K. for Melbourne S.S. Company Ltd, Victoria. Launched 04/04/1935. Completed August 1935. 10,346 tons. Length 138.7 metres. Beam 19.9 metres. Speed 18 knots. Used as Allied troopship in the Mediterranean and South West Pacific (for example, Townsville, QLD to Port Moresby, New Guinea) and as a hospital transport repatriating P.O.W.s to Australia. Renamed 1961 to Tong Hoo. Renamed 1966 to Lydia. Arrived 22/09/1968 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for breaking up. AWM id no. 303220

H.M.T. Egra - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Workman Clark in Yard 307, Belfast, Ireland for British India SN Company Limited. Launched 14/03/1911. Completed 01/06/1911. 5,109 tons. Length 125.0 metres. Beam 16.1 metres. Speed 16 knots. Twin screws. Used as Allied troopship and to repatriate P.O.W.s from the Middle East to Australia. Sold 01/02/1950. Broken up at Bombay, India. AWM id no. 303230

S.S. Empire Spearhead - Photo LSI Landing Ship, Infantry. Built by Consolidated Steel at Yard 354, Wilmington, California, U.S.A. for Ministry of War Transport, London, United Kingdom. Launched 07/11/1943 as Cape Girardeau. Length 120.8 metres. Beam 18.3 metres. 7,177 tons. Renamed 1945 to Ormonde. Renamed 1945 to Empire Spearhead. Arrived 04/05/1965 at Baltimore, U.S.A. for breaking up. AWM id no. 081455

S.S. Ethiopia - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by William Denny and Brothers in Yard 1040, Dumbarton, Scotland, United Kingdom for British India Steam Navigation Company Glasgow and London, United Kingdom. Launched 15/12/1921. 5,575 tons. Speed 16 knots. Twin screws driven by double reduction geared turbines (6 boilers). Length 125.2 metres. Beam 16.3 metres. Draught: 11 metres. Sold 20/05/1949 for scrap. Broken up October 1949 at Bombay, India.

S.S. Felix Roussel - Photo (07/09/1942 Fremantle, WA) Free French transport ship. Built by Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire. Launched 17/12/1929 at Saint-Nazaire. Length 171.25 metres. Beam 20.8 metres. Gross Weight 16,774 tons (17,084 after 1935 modifications). Speed 15 knots. Engines 2 Sulzer 2-stroke single acting 10 cylinder totalling 14,700hp (16,000hp after 1935 modifications) powering 2 screws. Passengers 196 first class, 110 second class, 90 third class (after 1935 modifications). Maiden voyage Marseilles to Japan 26/02/1931. Refit 1935 (more powerful engine and lengthened). Taken over by Allies 13/05/1940 at Port Said. Crew comprised British and volunteer Free French members. 1,502 troop capacity. First troop transport October 1940 (many voyages between Suez, Egypt and Bombay, India). Attacked October 1940 by Italian planes at Port Sudan (straddled with bombs but undamaged). Attacked by Japanese planes 05/02/1942 en route to Singapore in convoy BM12 (bomb hits between the funnels killed army gunners). Involved in Singapore evacuation February 1942 of women and children. Transferred to the Free French. Released from military duty 1946. Refitted 1948 at Dunkirk, France. Sold 24/04/1955 for $3.5 million to Arosa Line, Panama and renamed Arosa Sun. Scrapped March 1974 at Bilbao. 2/2 Pioneers aboard experienced mutiny, arson, assault, attempted murder and wholesale desertion on the 11 week voyage back to Fremantle, WA in 1942. AWM id no. 302835

H.M.S. Formidable - Photo Royal Navy Illustrious class aircraft carrier built by Harland and Wolff at Yard 1007, Belfast, Ireland. Keel laid down 17/06/1937. Launched 17/08/1939. Completed 24/11/1940. Length 229.7 metres. Beam 29.2 metres. 23,200 tons. 28,619 DWT. Speed 31 knots. Triple screws. Nicknamed `Old Formy'. Commissioned 24/11/1940. Carried Vought Corsair and Hellcat fighters; later also Grumman Avengers. Operated : Battle of Cape Matapan 27/03/1941 to 29/03/1941, 1942 Indian Ocean, 1942 Mediterranean, 1942 Arctic convoy, 1943 North African campaign, 1943 Operation Husky (invasion of Sicily), 1943 Italian campaign, 17/11/1943 aircraft attacked and sank U-Boat U-331, 17/07/1944 Operation Mascot (attack on the Tirpitz in Norway), August 1944 Operation Goodwood (another attack on the Tirpitz in Norway). Serious damage 26/05/1941 by two 1000 kilogram bomb hits while transporting aircraft to Malta. Kamikaze attack 04/05/1945 into flight deck (8 killed and 47 wounded; 1 Corsair and 10 Grumman Avengers destroyed). Another kamikaze attack 09/05/1945 into flight deck (not as serious). Used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Placed in reserve 1947. Arrived 12/05/1953 at Inverkeithing, Scotland for breaking up. Scrapped November 1956.

S.S. Georgetown Victory - Photo of sister ship S.S. Taos Victory. Standard Victory class 7,612 ton gross United States Army transport ship. Maritime Commission hull number 653. VC2-S-AP2 /USAT. Keel laid down 08/03/1945. Launched 28/04/1945. Delivered on 22/05/1945. Speed 15.5 knots. Length 138.8 metres. Beam 18.9 metres. Served as U.S. Army Transport ship. Used as troopship in South West Pacific.

H.M.S. Glenearn - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Caledon at Yard 368, Dundee, Scotland, U.K. for Glen Line Ltd, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Launched 29/06/1938. Completed November 1938. Length 147.2 metres. Beam 20.2 metres. 9784 tons. Speed 18 knots. Converted to LSI Landing Ship, Infantry during World War 2. Arrived 11/12/1970 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for breaking up. AWM id no. 302398

H.M.S. Glory - Photo (Grand Harbour, Malta) Royal Navy Colossus class 13,190 ton aircraft carrier built by Harland and Wolff in Yard 1191, Belfast, Ireland. Length 211.8 metres. Beam 24.5 metres. Speed 25 knots. Keel laid 28/08/1942. Launched 27/11/1943. Commissioned 02/04/1945. Used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Decommissioned 1956. Sold 23/08/1961 to Thomas W. Ward and scrapped at Inverkeithing, Scotland.

U.S.S. Henry T. Allen (APA-15) - Photo (11/02/1944) Harris-class attack transport. Displacement 13,529 tons. Speed 17 knots. Length 535 feet, 2 inches. Beam 72 feet, 4 inches. Troop capacity 107 officers, 1417 soldiers. Armament 4 x 3 inch / 50 caliber dual-purpose gun mounts, 2 x twin 40mm gun mounts, 2 x quad 1.1 inch gun mounts, 15 x single 20mm gun mounts. Launched 1920 as Army transport by New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, U.S.A. Completed 1921 as Wenatchee. Renamed November 1922 to President Jefferson. Laid up 1938 in Seattle. Bought October 1940 by U.S. Army and renamed Henry T. Allen. Transferred 06/12/1941 to U.S. Navy for conversion at Moore Dry Dock of Oakland, California. Commissioned 22/04/1942 (as AP-30). Operated : Torch assault force (North Africa), troop transport to Noumea and Espiritu Santo (Pacific). Reclassified 01/02/1943 (as APA-15). Operated : New Guinea, landings at Hollandia, Philipines, Leyte Gulf. Used as flagship for amphibious commands and training exercises. Reclassified February 1945 (as AG-90). Decommissioned 05/02/1946 and placed in reserve at Suisun Bay, Benecia, California. Sold March 1948 for scrap to Boston Metals, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. AWM id no. 302620

M.V. Highland Brigade - Photo Built by Harland and Wolff at Yard 812, Belfast, Ireland. Launched 01/11/1928. Completed 27/04/1929. Length 159.4 metres. Beam 21.2 metres. Tonnage 14,131 gross, 8,732 net. Speed 15 knots. Twin screws. Placed on the company's River Plate service and transferred to Royal Mail in 1932. Used as troopship from 1940 and to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Mine damage 18/01/1946 off Singapore when loaded with 2,200 Indian troops (no casualties). Resumed commercial services in 1947. Sold 1959 to John Latsis, Piraeus, Greece. Renamed 1959 to Henrietta for their Genoa-Australia service. Renamed 1960 to Marianna and used as a pilgrim ship for their Mecca service. Arrived 29/06/1965 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for breaking up.

M.V. Highland Chieftain - Photo Built by Harland and Wolf at Yard 806, Belfast, Ireland. Launched 21/06/1928. Completed 26/01/1929. Length 159.4 metres. Beam 21.2 metres. Tonnage 14,131 tons. Speed 15 knots. Twin screws. 150 1st class, 70 2nd class and 500 3rd class passengers. Launched 21/06/1928 (Nelson Line). Placed on the company's River Plate service and transferred to Royal Mail in 1932. Used as troopship from 1939 and to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Damaged 11/10/1940 during air raid in Liverpool. Collision with troopship Dominion Monarch 0300 April 1941 while off Freetown, West Africa (in Middle East convoy via Cape of Good Hope). Ship limped into Freetown with substantial damage to the bow and remained there 3 to 4 weeks for temporary repairs with concrete and wood before being limped to Capetown, South Africa. Returned 1948 to River Plate service. Sold January 1959 to Calpe Shipping Company, Gibraltar. Renamed 1959 to Calpean Star. Converted to whaling role. Sustained grounding (rudder damage) off South Georgia. Towed to Montevideo for repairs. Deliberately grounded after a boiler room explosion while leaving port and abandoned. Foundered 01/06/1960 at km4, Montevideo Channel. Sunken wreck removed for scrap 1965.

Imbari Maru - Refer to S.S. De Klerk entry.

H.M.S. Implacable - Photo (11/11/1945 to 19/11/1945 Balikpapan to Sydney voyage) Royal Navy 26,000 ton aircraft carrier built by Fairfield in Yard 672, Govan, United Kingdom. Keel laid down 21/02/1939. Launched 10/12/1942. Completed 28/08/1944. Length 233.5 metres. Beam 29.2 metres. Speed 32 knots. Quadruple screws. Used to repatriate 2/2 Pioneers from Balikpapan to Australia. Scrapped 01/11/1955 at Inverkeithing, Scotland. AWM id no. 040923

H.M.T. Johan Van Oldenbarnevelt - Photo Dutch Netherland Line shipping line passenger / cargo ship built by Nederlandse Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, Yard 194, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Launched 03/08/1929. Completed 13/03/1930. Displacement 19,040 tons. Length 609 feet (186 metres). Beam 74.8 feet. Speed 19 knots. Used as Allied troopship (H.M.T. FF) in South West Pacific (India, Singapore and Penang) 20/01/1941 to 13/02/1946. Refitted as ocean liner Holland to Indonesia route then Holland to Australia and New Zealand. Sold 08/03/1963 General Steam Navigation Company, Greece and renamed T.S.M.S. Lakonia for use on Southampton to Canary Islands route. Burned in fire at sea 22/12/1963 to 24/12/1963 (128 people died) and sank 29/12/1963 370km southwest of Lisbon, Portugal while under tow with tugs to Gibraltar.

H.M.A.S. Kanimbla - Photo Built by Harland and Wolf at Yard 955, Belfast, Ireland. Launched 12/12/1935. Completed 26/04/1936. Length 142.9 metres. Beam 20.2 metres. 10,984 gross tons, 6,585 net. Depth 10 metres. Passenger ship (400 capacity). Steel hulled twin screw motorship built by Harland and Wolff Ltd., Belfast. Speed 17 knots (twin diesels). Twin screws. Commissioned 1939 by Royal Navy. Refitted as armed merchant cruiser and sent to the Persian Gulf. Transferred 1943 as H.M.A.S. Kanimbla to the Royal Australian Navy and converted into an Infantry landing ship. She took part in all major landings in the South-West Pacific. Used post war by the Australian Government for transport to Japan for the British Commonwealth Occupational Forces. She also completed one journey to England, returning with migrants. Resumed interstate passenger services 1950. Major refit 1953 with a reduction in cargo space and passenger berths. Tonnage increased to 11,004 gross and 6,225 net. Sold January 1961 to Toyo Yusen K K line. Renamed 1961 to Oriental Queen. Arrived 07/12/1973 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for breaking up. Scrapped 1974 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan. AWM id no. 018605

S.S. Karoa - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Launched 03/12/1914. Completed 24/03/1915. Built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Yard 946, Low Walker, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. 7,009 tons. Speed 15 knots. Length 129.5 metres. Beam 16.9 metres. Used as Allied hospital ship during World War 2. Repatriated P.O.W.s (including 2/2 Pioneers) from Singapore to Australia. Broken up 03/05/1950 at Bombay, India. AWM id no. 123683

Kenkon Maru - Photo Cargo ship built by Mitsui in Yard 208, Tamano, Japan. Completed June 1935. 4,575 tons. Speed 15 knots. Length 110.4 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Torpedoed and sunk 21/01/1943 off Bougainville (43 Japanese crew lost) in position 06º12'S, 155º51'E by U.S.S. Gato (SS-212).

Kibitsu Maru - Photo Japanese standard Type 1 MA passenger / cargo ship converted to landing craft depot / carrier ship. Built by Hitachi in Innoshima, Japan. Completed 29/12/1943. 9,575 tons. Length 143.7 metres. Beam 19.5 metres. Speed 17 knots. Twin screws. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Mined and run aground in position 34.37N, 135.04E 07/08/1945 off Kobe, Japan. Sank 05/09/1945. Hulk broken up 1947.

Klipfontein - Photo Passenger / cargo ship built by P. Smit Jr at Yard 517, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Completed August 1939. Displacement 10,544 tons. Length 152.2 metres. Beam 19.2 metres. Speed 18 knots. Twin screws. Used as Allied troopship. Wrecked and sank 08/01/1953 (carrying passengers, copper and general cargo) at position 24º32'S, 35º14'E after striking submerged rocks five nautical miles off Cape Barra, Mozambique. She sank within an hour but all 234 passengers and crew were saved by the R.M.S. Bloemfontein Castle.

L.C.I. Landing Craft, Infantry - Photo Specially designed vessels used to transport infantry to landing beaches. AWM id no. 054722

U.S.S. LCI-1076 - See Landing Craft Infantry entry.

L.C.V.P. Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel - Photo Small boats used to transport personnel and supplies from LSIs to landing beaches. AWM id no. 052944

L.S.I. Landing Ship, Infantry - Photo Converted passenger-cargo vessels used to transport personnel, LCVPs and supplies for invasions. AWM id no. 301717

L.S.T. Landing Ship, Tank - Photo Specially designed vessels used to transport supplies and heavy equipment such as tanks which could be driven onto the landing beaches. They could accommodate 400 troops and vehicles could be stowed on both weather and tank decks. AWM id no. 054703

U.S.S. LST-171 - Landing Ship Tank. Built by Missouri Valley at Yard 15, Evansville, Indiana, U.S.A. Keel laid down 20/10/1942. Launched 28/02/1943. Completed 05/06/1943. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Decommissioned on 03/07/1946 in the U.S.A. Sold 26/09/1947 to Boston Metals Company, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. for breaking up.

U.S.S. LST-395 - Photo (LST-1 Class Landing Ship Tank). Built by Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Virginia, U.S.A. Keel laid down 28/09/1942. Launched 23/11/1942. Completed 19/12/1942. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Draught : unloaded bow 2 feet 4 inches and stern 7 feet 6 inches, loaded bow 8 feet 2 inches and stern 14 feet 1 inch. 2 x bow opening doors for vehicle drive out. 8-10 officers and 100-115 crew. Troop capacity 140. Armament single 3 inch / 50 gun mount, 5 x 40mm gun mounts, 6 x 20mm gun mounts, 2 x .50-cal machine guns, 4 x .30-cal machine guns. 2 x General Motors 12-567 diesel engines (2 shafts). Launched 23/11/1942. Commissioned 19/12/1942. Operated : June 1943 Southern Solomons, July 1943 New Georgia/Rendova/Vangunu, August 1943 Vella Lavella, November 1943 Cape Torokina, April 1944 Hollandia, May 1944 Biak Island, July/August 1944 Cape Sansapor, June/July 1945 Balikpapan, April 1945 Mindanao Island, Far East Occupation Forces until decommissioned 01/05/1946 in U.S.A. Sold 26/09/1947 to Boston Metals Company, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A for breaking up.

H.M.S. LST-408 - Photo of type (LST-1 S3-M2-K2 Class Landing Ship Tank). Built by Bethlehem Fairfield Company at Yard 2180, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Keel laid down 09/09/1942. Launched 31/10/1942 as U.S.S. LST-408. Delivered to United Kingdom and commissioned 23/12/1942. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Operated : November 1945 Labuan, November 1945 Morotai Island. No active service in U.S. Navy. Decommissioned 19/06/1946. Sold for scrap 05/12/1947 to Bosey, Philippines. AWM id no. P02919.017

U.S.S. LST-466 - S3-M2-K2 Class Landing Ship Tank. Built by Kaiser Company at Yard 170, Vancouver, Washington, U.S.A.. Laid down 14/10/1942. Launched 18/11/1942. Completed 01/03/1943. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Decommissioned on 12/04/1946 in the U.S.A. Sold 12/04/1948 to Hughes Brothers Incorporated, U.S.A. for breaking up.

U.S.S. LST-584 - Photo (LST-1 Class Landing Ship Tank). Built by Missouri Valley Bridge and Iron Company in Evansville, Indiana, U.S.A. Keel laid down 08/05/1944. Launched 08/07/1944 as U.S.S. LST-584. Commissioned on 05/08/1944. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Operated : March 1945 Mindanao Island landings, April / May 1945 Tarakan Island. Occupation duty in the Far East post war to December 1945. Decommissioned 12/04/1946 in the U.S.A. Sold 19/03/1948 to Green's Bayou Transporters, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. AWM id no. 108520

U.S.S. LST-703 - LST Class Landing Ship Tank. Built by Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company of Jeffersonville, Indiana, U.S.A. Keel laid down 08/04/1944. Launched 28/05/1944. Completed 23/06/1944. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Transported 7th Division troops including 2/2 Pioneer Battalion on Operation Oboe 2 landing at Balikpapan, Borneo July 1945. Decommissioned 31/07/1946 in the U.S.A. Sold 10/12/1947 to Salco Iron & Metal Company, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. for breaking up. No photo available.

U.S.S. LST-777 - Photo (01/07/1945 troops watching Oboe 2 shelling before landing) (LST Class Landing Ship Tank). Built by Dravo Corporation at Neville Island, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Keel laid down 04/05/1944. Launched 24/06/1944. Completed 25/07/1944. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Transported 7th Division troops including 2/2 Pioneer Battalion on Operation Oboe 2 landing at Balikpapan, Borneo July 1945. Decommissioned 28/08/1946. Sold 07/05/1948 to Bethlehem Steel Company, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. for breaking up. AWM id no. 110768

U.S.S. LST-1017 - Class Landing Ship Tank. Built by Bethlehem Fairfield Company at Yard 1593, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Keel laid down 25/03/1944. Launched 25/04/1944. Completed 12/05/1944. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Decommissioned December 1946 and sold to China. No photo available.

U.S.S. LST-1018 - Class Landing Ship Tank. Built by Bethlehem Fairfield Company at Yard 1594, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Keel laid down 31/03/1944. Launched 06/05/1944. Completed 14/05/1944. 4,080 tons. Speed 11.5 knots. Length 100.0 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Twin screws. Operated : Balikpapan, Borneo landing. Decommissioned 23/06/1947. Sold 24/06/1948 Consolidated Builders Incorporated, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. for breaking up. No photo available.

Maebashi Maru - Photo 7,005 ton Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Sunk with 2 torpedoes on 30/09/1943 (1,389 troops and 61 crewmen / gunners lost) off Rabaul in position 01º00'N, 139º28'E by the Gato class submarine USS Pogy (SS-266) under command of Lieutenant Commander George H. Wales after 2 day chase of the five ship convoy. No other details available.

H.M.A.S. Manoora - Photo Passenger ship / Armed Merchant Cruiser / Landing Ship Infantry. Built by Alex Stephen and Sons Limited at Yard 540, Linthouse, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K. Keel laid down July 1934. Launched 25/10/1934. Completed February 1935. Commissioned 12/12/1939. 10,856 tons gross. Speed 18 knots. Crew 345. Length 141.3 metres. Beam 20.2 metres. Draught 8 metres. Twin screws driven by diesels. Armament as : Armed Merchant Cruiser 7 x 6-inch guns, 2 x 3-inch anti-aircraft guns, 2 x Lewis light machine guns, 1 x Seagull V aircraft. : Landing Ship Infantry 1 x 6-inch gun (later replaced by 2 x 4-inch guns), 2 x 3-inch anti-aircraft guns, 8 x 20mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft guns, 6 x 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns (added later). 12/06/1940 intercepted and sunk by gunfire Italian merchant vessel Romolo in Pacific Ocean. Renamed 1961 to Ambulombo. Renamed 1965 to Affan Oceana. Renamed 1966 Ambulombo. Foundered in tow 18/11/1972 at position 18º19'N, 120º34.24'E. AWM id no. 300981

H.M.A.S. Manunda - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Completed 16/04/1929. Built by William Beardmore and Company in Yard 651, Dalmuir, Scotland. Launched 27/11/1928. Completed 16/04/1929. 9,115 tons. Speed 16 knots. Length 131.1 metres. Beam 18.4 metres. Twin screws. June 1929 began Australian coast trade between Sydney, Fremantle, Melbourne and Cairns (176 first class, 136 second class). Initial refit as Defensively Equipped Merchant Ship (D.E.M.S.) then to Allied hospital ship during World War 2. 22/07/1940 commissioned A.H.S. Manunda 2/1 Hospital Ship. Four voyages to Middle East and Mediterranean between November 1940 and September 1941. 19/02/1942 damaged during Japanese air raids on Darwin (13 crew and hospital staff killed, 19 seriously wounded and approximately 40 sustaining minor wounds) but acted as casualty clearing station for injured from other ships. Refitted in Adelaide then used as floating hospital at Milne Bay, New Guinea. Approximately 30,000 casualties transported during World War 2. September 1945 repatriated P.O.W.s and civilian internees from Changi Prison, Singapore and Batu Lintang camp at Labuan, Borneo. September 1946 decommissioned. Refit before continuing Australian coast trade 02/04/1948. Sold September 1956 and renamed Hakone Maru. 04/10/1956 left Sydney for Japan. Scrapped 18/06/1957 at Osaka, Japan. AWM id no. 006727

Marella - Photo Built 1914 by Reiherstiegwerft at Yard 452, Hamburg, Germany for Woermann Linie AG, Hamburg. Twin screw steamer. 7,372 tons. Length 129.8 metres. Beam 17.0 metres. Speed 14 knots. Launched 06/06/1914. Completed November 1916 as Hilda Woermann. Renamed 1917 to Wahehe. Given to British Government as part of war reparations after World War 1 and renamed 1920 to Marella. Sold 1921 to Burns Philp and Company Limited. Transported troops and passengers from southern Australian ports to Darwin, Java and Singapore 1939 to 1942. Survived air raid 09/02/1942 Batavia Roads, Java and evacuated many refugees via Sunda Strait to Fremantle, Australia 27/02/1942 then around to Sydney. Armed by the Australian Government at Sydney and used to ferry passengers, troops and military supplies between Sydney and Fremantle 1942 to 1944. Salvaged 1945 Torokina, Bougainville after running aground as troopship and hull repaired in Sydney. Returned to Australia to Singapore service postwar. Renamed 1948 to Captain Marcos. Sold 1949. Renamed 1950 to Liguria. Renamed 1951 to Corsica. Scrapped Ghent, Belguim 14/11/1954.

Miyo Maru - Cargo ship. Built by Wood Skinner in Yard 66, Bill Quay, United Kingdom. Launched 29/05/1897. Completed July 1897 as Helios. Displacement 1,330 tons. Length 72.2 metres. Beam 10.7 metres. Renamed 1905 to Miyo Maru. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Broken up 1946. No photo available.

Moji Maru - Photo Built by Yokohama Dock in Yard 95, Yokohama, Japan. Completed 15/09/1922 as a cargo ship. Displacement 3,757 tons. Speed 12 knots. Length 105.2 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Bombed by Allied aircraft on 15/01/1943 (VX48525 Private Thomas Rex Murphy fatally wounded) at position 13º30'N, 98º30'E in convoy to Moulmein, Burma with hellship Nichimei Maru (which was sunk in the attack). Bombed by Allied aircraft and sunk on 12/06/1944 in position 17º31'N, 144º10'E.

S.S. Montoro - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Clyde Shipbuilding Company at Yard 296, Port Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. Launched 24/10/1911. Completed December 1911. 4,057 tons. Length 109.9 metres. Beam 14.4 metres. Speed 12 knots. One screw. Australian passenger cargo steamer which transported Darwin Mobile Force Sydney to Darwin March 1939, transported Australian troops to New Guinea and Northern garrisons in convoys ZK.3 and ZK.4 between July and September 1941, withdrew dependents (women and children) from Darwin in January 1942 and transported wounded troops back to Australia in 1944. Armed with 12 pounder AA gun aft and 20 mm Oerlikon AA gun on the superstructure. Renamed 1948 to Haven. Broken up at Sakai, Japan January 1955. AWM id no. 303374

Moreton Bay - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Vickers, in Yard 573, Barrow, United Kingdom. Launched 23/04/1921. Completed 18/11/1921. Displacement 13,850 tons. Speed 16 knots. Length 161.7 metres. Beam 20.8 metres. Converted 1939 to Allied armed merchant cruiser. Converted 1941 to Allied troopship. Used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Arrived 13/04/1957 at Barrow, United Kingdom for breaking up. AWM id no. 302437

Nagara Maru - Photo Freighter of 7,149 GRT. Built by Yokohama Dock in Yard 220, Yokohama, Japan. Launched 28/04/1934. Speed 16 knots. Length 137.0 metres. Beam 19.0 metres. Height 36.5 metres. Draft 8.3 metres. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Bombed and sunk 14/11/1942 by U.S. air attack off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

Nigerstroom - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by C. van der Giessen & Zonen, in Yard 656, Krimpen aan den IJssel, The Netherlands. Completed April 1939. Displacement 4,639 tons. Speed 15 knots. Length 116.9 metres. Beam 16.9 metres. Allied cargo ship. Renamed 1957 to Ghanakust. 01/10/1958 beached after collision with Spanish M.S. Monte Urbasa off Bec d'Ambes, Gironde Estuary, France and sold for demolition after declared total loss.

S.S. Oranje - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Netherlands Shipbuilding Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands in Yard 270, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Launched 08/09/1938 by Queen Wilhelmina and named Oranje in honour of the Royal House of Orange. 20,017 tons. Speed 22 knots (26 maximum). Length 200.0 metres. Beam 25.5 metres. Carried 717 passengers (4 classes). After first voyage (from Amsterdam), laid up at Sourabaya, Java from December 1939 to February 1941 then sailed to Australia under Dutch government orders for conversion to largest Allied hospital ship operated from Australia (under Australian command with Dutch crew and flag). Involved in Middle East, Indian and Pacific Campaigns carrying Australian and New Zealand soldiers over 41 voyages. January 1953 badly damaged bows after collision with Willem Ruys in Red Sea. 1959 refit to 20,565 tons in Amsterdam (323 first class, 626 tourist class). 1964 sold to Lauro Lines and renamed Angelina Lauro. Extensive refit 1964 to 1966 at Cantieri del Tirreno shipyards in Genoa, Italy to 24,377 tons and 205.5 metres length (180 to 377 first class, 946 to 1050 tourist class). 24/08/1964 onboard fire killed six people. Refit 1972 as cruise ship (800 one class). Chartered to Costa Line, 1977 to 1979 for use in the Caribbean. 30/03/1979 Burned at Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands beside wharf and settled half sunk. Most crew and passengers ashore at the time with remainder evacuated safely. Declared total loss and raised to be scrapped. 24/09/1979 sank in position 11º43'30"N, 121º42'36"W while under tow to be scrapped in Taiwan (after Panama Canal transit).

S.S. Orcades - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Vickers Armstrong at Yard 712, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, England, United Kingdom. Launched 07/12/1936. Completed July 1937. 23,456 tons. Speed 20 knots. Length 194.9 metres. Beam 25.1 metres. Twin screws driven by single-reduction Parsons steam turbines. Accommodation : 463 first class and 605 second class passengers. Cruise ship between London and Brisbane. Used as troopship 1940 to 1942 as H.M.T. Orcades. Sunk by U-boat 10/10/1942 in position 31º51'S, 14º40'E on return voyage from South Africa to Liverpool, United Kingdom. Survivors in lifeboats (photo of actual rescue) picked up by Polish steamer Narvick.

U.S.S. Pampanito (SS-383) - Photo Balao class diesel/electric submarine built by Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, U.S.A. Keel laid down 15/03/1943. Launched 12/07/1943. Completed 06/11/1943. Displacement 1,526 tons. Speed 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged. Endurance 75 days. Range 11,000 nautical miles surfaced (at 10 knots). Draft 17 feet. Length 94.9 metres (311 feet, 9 inches). Beam 8.3 metres (27 feet, 3 inches). Test depth 300 feet. Complement 6 officers, 54 enlisted men. Armament 10 x 21 inch torpedo tubes (six forward, four aft), 24 torpedoes storage capacity, 1 x 3 inch / 50 caliber deck gun, Bofors 40mm and Oerlikon 20mm cannon. Commissioned 06/11/1943. 1st war patrol 15/03/1944 / 02/05/1944 southwest approaches to Saipan and Guam. Lifeguard duty south of Yap and two torpedo hits on destroyer. 2nd war patrol 03/06/1944 / 23/07/1944 off Kyushu, Shikoku, and Honshu. 23/06/1944 submerged Japanese submarine fired two torpedoes at Pampanito and missed. 06/07/1944 damaged Japanese gunboat. 12/09/1944 sank 10,509 ton P.O.W. ship Kachidoki Maru carrying 900 British prisoners, 5,135 ton tanker Zuiho Maru and damaged a third ship. 15/09/1944 picked up 73 British and Australian P.O.W. survivors from the Rakuyo Maru and Kachidoki Maru sinkings after passing through the area again and finding men clinging to makeshift rafts. 2/2 Pioneers rescued by U.S.S. Pampanito : VX26628 H. C. Chivers, VX17768 J. R. Hocking, QX24156 D. F. Lynch, VX22064 R. H. Mawby and VX22728 K. C. Renton. Three other subs [U.S.S. Sealion (SS-315), U.S.S. Barb (SS-220) and Queenfish (SS-393)] called to assist with the rescue before she disembarked survivors at Saipan. 19/11/1944 sank 1,200 ton cargo ship Shinko Maru 1 and damaged a second ship. 06/02/1945 sank 6,968 ton cargo ship Engen Maru. 08/02/1945 sank 3,520 ton passenger / cargo ship Eifuku Maru. Decommissioned 15/12/1945 Mare Island, San Francisco, U.S.A. April 1960 assigned to Naval Reserve Training at Mare Island Naval Shipyard. 06/11/1962 reclassified AGSS-383 and served as Naval Reserve Training ship at Vallejo, California. 20/12/1971 struck from Navy Register. 21/11/1975 conversion to memorial and museum at San Francisco, U.S.A. 20/05/1976 transferred to Maritime Park Association. 15/03/1982 opened to public. 1986 listed on National Register of Historic Places and declared National Historic Landmark. 1995 played U.S.S. Stingray (SS-161) in comedy movie Down Periscope. Currently moored at Pier 45, Fisherman's Wharf area, San Francisco and operated by San Francisco Maritime National Park Association.

H.M.S. Queen Elizabeth - Photo Passenger ship built by John Brown and Company in Yard 552, Clydebank, Scotland for Cunard White Star Line. 83,673 tons. Speed 28.5 knots. Length 314.2 metres. Beam 36.2 metres. Laid down 04/12/1936. Launched 27/09/1938. Completed 02/03/1940. Refitted as troopship during World War 2. Often travelled out of convoy and without escort since U-Boats could not match her speed. Sold 1970 to C. Y. Tung. Renamed 1970 to Seawise University. Fire (arson) Hong Kong 09/01/1972. Broken up in situ Hong Kong 1974-1979. AWM id no. 007062

H.M.S. Queen Mary - Photo Built by John Brown and Company Clydebank, Scotland for Cunard White Star Line. 81,237 tons. Speed 28.5 knots. Length 1,019.4 feet. Beam 118.5 feet. Height 181 feet. Draught 39 feet. 2139 passengers (776 first class, 784 tourist class, 579 third class). 1,101 crew. Laid down 01/12/1930. Launched 26/09/1934. Radio Callsign GBTT. Maiden voyage 27/05/1936 as passenger liner. Designated H.M.T. N.N. and refitted as troopship in Sydney, New South Wales to carry Australian and New Zealand soldiers to the United Kingdom. Often travelled out of convoy and without escort since U-Boats could not match her speed. The forward section was fitted with anti-aircraft guns. 02/10/1942 cut in two and sank light cruiser H.M.S. Curacoa off the Irish coast in position 55°50N, 8°38W after accidental collision amidships at a speed of 28 knots (338 killed and 99 survivors picked up). December 1942 hit broadside by 92 foot rogue wave during a gale 700 miles from Scotland while carrying 16,082 American troops from New York to Great Britain. It was calculated later that the ship would have capsized had she rolled another 20cm. Resumed passenger runs post war until retired 01/12/1967. Refitted as hotel / restaurant / museum at Long Beach, California, U.S.A.

H.M.A.S. Quiberon - Photo One of eight Q Class destroyers built for Royal Navy. Laid down 14/10/1940. Launched 31/01/1942. Built by J. Samuel White & Company Limited, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England. Commissioned in Royal Australian Navy at Cowes, Isle of Wight, 06/071942. 1,705 tons (as destroyer), 2,020 tons (as frigate). Speed 31 knots. Crew 220. Length 358 feet 9 inches. Beam 35 feet 9 inches. Draught 9 feet 6 inches. Twin screws driven by turbines. Armament as : destroyer 4 x 4.7-inch guns, 4 x 2-pounder guns, 2 x 40mm guns, 8 x 21-inch torpedo tubes : frigate 2 x 4-inch guns, 2 x 40mm Bofors, 2 triple barrel depth charge mortars. Operated : North Atlantic convoy escort, October 1942 Allied landings in North Africa (Operation Torch), 28/11/1942 destroyed Italian submarine Dessie off the Tunisian coast north west of Bone, 02/12/1942 in attack group that sunk all four ships of enemy convoy and escort Italian destroyer Lupo off Tunis (rescued crew of Quentin after sunk by aircraft torpedo on the return), December 1942 and January 1943 convoy and fleet escort duties, 21/12/1942 assisted rescuing survivors (actual photo from Quiberon) from liner Strathallan torpedoed off Algerian coast by U-562, remainder 1943 and 1944 Indian Ocean convoy escort with British Eastern Fleet (after refit in Melbourne), April 1944 Sabang air strikes, May 1944 Sourabaya, Java air strikes, October 1944 fleet bombardments of Nicobar Islands, December 1944 escort and anti-submarine vessel on Australia Station, March 1945 to Manus (Admiralty Islands) as part of British Pacific Fleet, support of American seizure of Okinawa and attacks on Japan, re-occupation of Shanghai, in East Indies until February 1946 (troop carrying, repatriating P.O.W.s and assisting of Dutch control in the area), March 1946 Japan occupation duty (three periods in total), 15/05/1950 paid off, November 1950 conversion to fast anti-submarine frigate commenced at Cockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney, December 1957 conversion completed at Naval Dockyard at Garden Island in Sydney, 18/12/1957 recommissioned as unit of 1st Frigate Squadron, several periods on Far East service as unit of Commonwealth Strategic Reserve, unit of South East Asia Treaty Organisation forces in Far East waters, unit of Australian Fleet on Australia Station, 26/06/1964 paid off to Reserve, 15/02/1972 sold for breaking up to Fujita Salvage Company Limited, Osaka, Japan. AWM id no. 044790

S.S. Rajula - Photo Built by Barclay Curle at Yard 614, Whiteinch, United Kingdom for the British India Steam Navigation Company Limited. Launched 22/09/1926. Completed 26/11/1926. Speed 13 knots with 5 oil-fired boilers. 8,478 tons. Length 140.8 metres. Beam 18.8 metres. 1926 to 1938 Madras to Singapore service. September 1938 Munich crisis. Operated as troopship from November 1939 : 1940 mainly from Bombay to Suez, December 1941 Singapore (evacuated refugees until Singapore fell), July 1942 transported 6th Australian Division from Colombo to Australia, 1943 Syracuse, Augusta and Anzio landings, 1944 carried troops and wounded at Burma (ambulance transport). 1945 Malaysia and Rangoon (reoccupation). Normal passenger service post war. Sold 10/10/1973 to The Shipping Corporation of India and renamed Rangat. Used for service from Calcutta to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Laid up 12/05/1974. Arrived 30/08/1974 at Bombay, India for breaking up by Maharashtra Shipbreaking Company.

Rakuyo Maru - Photo (United States Navy) Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company in Yard 342, Nagasaki, Japan. Keel laid down 19/03/1920. Launched 26/02/1921. Completed 20/05/1921. 9,419 tons. Speed 12 knots. Length 140.2 metres. Beam 18.3 metres. Twin screws. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. On 04/09/1944, convoy HI-72 left Singapore. The Rakuyo Maru (with 1317 P.O.W.s) torpedoed 12/09/1944 by Balao class submarine U.S.S. Sealion (SS-315) at around 5:00am in South China Sea, east of Hainan in position 18º42'N, 114º30'E and the Kachidoki Maru (United States Navy photo) (with 900 P.O.W.s) received hits from the Balao class submarine U.S.S. Pampanito (SS-383) at around 11:00pm. The Rakuyo Maru lost 1159 P.O.W.s while more than 400 perished on the Kachidoki Maru. No other ships in convoy carried P.O.W.s. The Japanese rescued some of the P.O.W.s from these two ships and all were transported to Japan on Kibitsu Maru. 2/2 Pioneers rescued by the Japanese : VX36401 J. Amoore, VX59998 G. P. Carroll, 3900071 (VX9845) W. Downes, VX56918 L. J. Hock, VX16237 H. L. Matthews, VX17827 H. G. Ramsey, VX55477 Bill Mayne and VX36401 J. J. White. U.S.S. Pampanito later returned through the area, found 73 British and Australian P.O.W. survivors and realising what had happened, called in three other submarines (U.S.S. Sealion, Gato class U.S.S. Barb (SS-220) and Balao class U.S.S. Queenfish (SS-393)) to assist with the rescue of as many survivors (actual rescue photo) as they could find. 2/2 Pioneers rescued by U.S.S. Pampanito : VX26628 H. C. Chivers, VX17768 J. R. Hocking, QX24156 D. F. Lynch, VX22064 R. H. Mawby and VX22728 K. C. Renton. 2/2 Pioneers rescued by U.S.S. Sealion : VX23638 E. F. Buerckner, VX21783 F. Clarkson, VX20904 V. Clifford and VX54602 C. G. Sprague. 2/2 Pioneer rescued by U.S.S. Barb : VX34456 L. G. Cornelius. The survivors were taken to Saipan and then repatriated to Australia in October 1944.

Rashin Maru - See Bioki Maru entry.

H.M.S. Ruler (D72) - Photo (27/09/1945 Pyrmont, Sydney returning with ex P.O.W.s) 15,390 ton Bogue class escort aircraft carrier. Built as U.S.S. St. Joseph by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation. Keel laid down 25/03/1943. Launched 21/08/1943. Length 492 feet (150 metres). Beam 108 feet 6 inches (33.07 metres). Draught 26 feet (7.9 metres). Steam turbines, 1 shaft. Speed 18 knots (33 km/h). Complement 646 officers and men. 30 aircraft carried. Armament 2 × 5 inch (127 mm) guns, 8 x twin 40 mm Bofors, 35 x single 20 mm Oerlikon. Transferred to Royal Navy as H.M.S. Ruler. Commissioned 22/12/1943. Operated in North Atlantic, at Truk and Okinawa. Used to repatriate 2/2 Pioneers from Japan to Australia. Decommissioned 29/01/1946. Struck from register 20/03/1946. Scrapped 1946. AWM id no. 122014

U.S.A.T. Sea Barb - Photo 7,909 ton United States Army class C3-S-A2 cargo / transport ship. Built by Western Pipe and Steel Company, San Francisco, U.S.A. at Yard 89, San Francisco, U.S.A. Keel laid 31/12/1942. Launched 08/04/1943. Completed 06/08/1943. Length 150 metres. Beam 21.2 metres. Speed 16.5 knots. Used as troopship in South West Pacific 1942-1945. Renamed 1949 F. J. Luckenbach. Renamed 1960 P & T Seafarer. Renamed 1963 American Hawk. Limpet mined Qui Nhon 14/06/1971. Broken up September 1971 in Hong Kong. AWM id no. 303291

U.S.A.T. Sea Cat - Photo (ship in background) Cargo ship built by Western Pipe and Steel Company at Yard 90, San Francisco, U.S.A. Keel laid 26/01/1943. Launched 04/05/1943. Completed 25/08/1943. 7,942 tons. Length 150.0 metres. Beam 21.2 metres. Speed 16.5 knots. Used as troopship in South West Pacific (known to have been at Morotai, Borneo). Renamed 1949 Lena Luckenbach. Renamed 1968 Overseas Lena. Renamed 1969 Overseas Eva. Broken up 26/02/1971 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan. AWM id no. 091980

Sea Ray - C3-S-A2 Class Ship Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Western Pipe and Steel Company at Yard 126, San Francisco, U.S.A. for the U.S. War Shipping Administration. Keel laid 19/10/1943. Launched 27/01/1944. Completed July 1944. Length 150 metres. Beam 21.2 metres. Speed 16.5 knots. One screw. 8,353 gross ton type C-3 cargo ship. Finished as a troop transport with accommodation for 2,158 troops. Used as troopship in South West Pacific. Laid up 1946. Sold 1947 to Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco. Renamed 1947 to Hawaiian Rancher. Collided 11/12/1952 with (and sank) M/S Fernstream off the Golden Gate, San Francisco in fog. Scrapped September 1972 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

U.S.S. Sealion (SS-315) - Photo Balao class diesel/electric submarine built by Groton at Yard 85, Connecticut, U.S.A. Keel laid down 25/02/1943. Launched 31/10/1943. Completed 08/03/1944. Displacement 1,550 tons. Speed 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged. Twin screws. Endurance 75 days. Range 11,000 nautical miles surfaced (at 10 knots). Draft 16 feet 10 inches. Length 311 feet, 9 inches (95 metres). Beam 27 feet, 3 inches (8.3 metres). Test depth 400 feet. Complement 10 officers, 71 enlisted men. Armament 10 x 21 inch torpedo tubes (six forward, four aft), 24 torpedoes storage capacity, 1 x 5 inch / 25 caliber deck gun, Bofors 40mm and Oerlikon 20mm cannon. Commissioned 08/03/1944. Operated in the Pacific and Asia areas during World War 2. 28/06/1944 sank Japanese naval transport Sansei Maru. 30/06/1944 sank sampan. 06/07/1944 sank Setsuzan Maru. 11/07/1944 sank freighters Tsukushi Maru 2 and Taian Maru 2. 31/08/1944 heavily damaged tanker Rikko Maru and sank Shirataka. 12/09/1944 part of group which attacked convoy en route to Formosa. 0522 launched three torpedoes at tanker. 0524 Zuiho Maru started to burn. Damaged Kachidoki Maru started to burn after colliding with the burning tanker. 0525 two torpedoes fired at Rakuyo Maru which started burning. Sealion lost contact with convoy after escort forced her deep. 15/09/1944 U.S.S. Pampanito (SS-383) radioed Sealion to return to where Rakuyo Maru was sunk. She had been carrying Australian and British P.O.W.s (1159 killed in attack / effects of the attack). She found 54 P.O.W.s and started back to Saipan. Three died before 17/09/1944. 2/2 Pioneers rescued by Sealion : VX23638 E. F. Buerckner, VX21783 F. Clarkson, VX20904 V. Clifford and VX54602 C. G. Sprague. 18/09/1944 U.S.S. Case transferred doctor and pharmacist's mate to Sealion. 19/09/1944 fourth P.O.W. died. 20/09/1944 Sealion arrived Tanapag Harbor, Saipan to transfer the surviving 50 to Army hospital. 16/11/1944 no. 8 tube accidentally fired with both doors closed. 18/11/1944 hydrogen explosion battery space of no. 5 tube torpedo. 21/11/1944 sank Urakaze and damaged Kongo's boiler rooms (Kongo exploded later that morning). 20/12/1944 sank supply ship Mamiya. 28/12/1944 to 14/01/1945 reconnaissance duties prior to Philippine Islands invasion. 17/03/1945 sank Samui. 02/04/1945 rescued pilot. Decommissioned 16/02/1946. April 1948 conversion to a troop carrier started. 02/11/1948 recommissioned as Submarine, Transport, SSP-315. 31/01/1950 reclassified transport submarine ASSP-315. 24/10/1956 reclassified submarine transport APSS-315. 30/06/1960 decommissioned Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 20/10/1961 recommissioned. Autumn 1962 supported blockade during Cuban Missile Crisis. January 1969 reclassified amphibious transport submarine LPSS-315. 20/02/1970 decommissioned and placed in reserve. Struck off register 15/03/1977. Sunk 08/07/1978 as target off Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.

Shillong - Photo (Fremantle, WA) British cargo ship. Built by Stephen in Yard 562, Linthouse, Glasgow, Scotland for Peninsular & Oriental, London, United Kingdom. Launched 11/08/1938. Completed 14/02/1939. Length 134.8 metres. Beam 17.7 metres. Speed 12 knots. One screw. 5,529 tons. 4 inch gun mounted aft. Torpedoed and sunk by submarine U635 04/04/1943 in position 57.10N, 35.30W (with zinc, grain and general cargo). AWM id no. 303926

Skagerrak - Photo (28/07/1941) Norwegian cargo vessel also used as a troopship during World War 2. Presumably named after the strait between southeast coast of Norway, southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark. 17/07/1941 Used to evacuate European nationals from Nauru. 02/02/1946 Disembarked 500 long service men from Labuan and Macassar, Celebes at No. 11 Wharf, Woolloomooloo, Sydney. (Australian War Memorial shows as Skagerak). AWM id no. 303939, 125326 & 125323

S.S. Sophocles - Photo Built by Gotaverken at Yard 531, Gothenburg, Sweden. Keel laid down 25/02/1943. Launched 21/01/1939. Completed June 1939. Length 135.0 metres. Beam 17.3 metres. Speed 14 knots. 5,184 tons, 9370 DWT. Troop transport ship 1940 - 1948 and used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Renamed 1947 as Skauvann. Renamed 1959 as Carla. Renamed 1963 as Timios Stavros. Arrived April 1972 Karakoy, Istanbul for breaking up. AWM id no. 011918

H.M.S. Speaker - Photo C3-S-A2 Class Ship converted to small aircraft carrier. Built by Seattle-Tacoma in Yard 35, Tacoma, U.S.A. Keel laid down 09/10/1942. Launched 20/02/1943 as Delgada. Completed 20/11/1943. 10,200 tons. Length 492 feet. Beam 69.6 feet. Used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Renamed 1948 to Lancero. Renamed 1965 to President Osmena. Renamed 1971 to Lucky Three. Renamed 1972 to President Osmena. Renamed 1972 to Lucky Three. Arrived 09/06/1972 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan for breaking up. AWM id no. 119002

S.S. Stamford Victory - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Bethlehem Fairfield Company at Yard 2455, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Hull No. 641. Type VC2-S-AP2. Keel laid 20/01/1945. Launched 12/03/1945. Completed 07/04/1945. Length 138.8 metres. Beam 18.9 metres. 15.5 knots. One screw. Served as U.S. Army Transport ship. Renamed 1948 to British Prince. Renamed 1957 to Mandagala. Renamed 1960 to Orient Trader. Fire 21/07/1965 at Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Arrived 11/07/1966 at Valencia, Spain for breaking up. AWM id no. P02497.031

Stirling Castle - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Harland & Wolff in Yard 941, Belfast, Ireland for Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company Limited. Launched 15/08/1935. Completed 29/01/1936. 25,550 tons. Length 221.0 metres. Beam 25.1 metres. Speed 21 knots. Twin screws. Involved in evacuation of wounded during Japanese invasion of Java in 1942. 03/03/1966 Broken up at Mihara, Japan. AWM id no. 303970

R.M.S. Stratheden - Photo Passenger ship. Built by Vickers-Armstrongs, in Yard 722, Barrow, United Kingdom. Launched 10/06/1937. Completed 16/12/1937. Displacement 23,722 tons. Speed 20 knots. Twin screws. Length 194.9 metres. Beam 25.1 metres. Used as Allied troopship. Renamed 1964 to Henrietta Latsi. Renamed 1966 to Marianna Latsi. Arrived 19/05/1969 at La Spezia, Italy for breaking up. AWM id no. 303979

Tamahoko Maru - Photo (sister ship Yae Maru shown) Cargo ship. Built by Harima at Yard 11, Aioi, Japan. Completed March 1919 as Yone Maru. Displacement 6,780 tons. Speed 10 knots. Single screw. Length 129.5 metres. Beam 16.3 metres. Renamed 1930 to Tamahoko Maru. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. 24/06/1944 torpedoed and sunk by the Balao class submarine U.S.S. Tang (SS-306) southwest of Kagoshima in position 32º24'N, 129º38'E. 267 Australian, 190 British, 266 Dutch and 18 Americans had left Manila on Miyo Maru 03/06/1944 and then been transferred to the Tamahoko Maru at Takao, Formosa on 18/06/1944 after a typhoon damaged Miyo Maru. 560 out of the 772 P.O.W.s on board were lost. Tainan Maru, Nasusan Maru, and Kennichi Maru were also torpedoed and sunk in the same attack by U.S.S. Tang (out of the six transports in the convoy). 2/2 Pioneers rescued by the Japanese : VX31565 D. R. G. Anderson, VX18389 G. Thorn, VX23630 E. E. Hooper, VX61603 W. Boyd, WX11771 G. Ross and VX60676 L. Powell.

S.S. Tamaroa - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Harland and Wolff Limited at Yard 575, Belfast, Ireland. Launched 22/09/1921 as Sophocles. Completed 02/02/1922. Length 152.5 metres. Beam 19.3 metres. Speed 15 knots. Twin screws. 12,361 tons. Renamed 1926 as Tamaroa. Used to repatriate P.O.W.s to Australia. Arrived 05/03/1957 Blyth, Northumberland, England, United Kingdom for breaking up. AWM id no. 122143

S.S. Taos Victory - Photo Standard Victory class 7,612 ton gross United States Army transport ship. Maritime Commission hull number 73. VC2-S-AP2 /USAT. Built by the California Shipbuilding Corporation at Yard V39, Terminal Island, Los Angeles, U.S.A. Keel laid down 06/11/1944. Launched 29/12/1944. Delivered on 31/01/1945. Length 138.8 metres. Beam 18.9 metres. Speed 15.5 knots. Single screw. Served as U.S. Army Transport ship. Used as troopship in South West Pacific. 1946 temporarily transferred to Britain as a troopship (managed by Furness, Withy and Co for the Ministry of War Transport). Sold 1948 to Donaldson Atlantic Line (converted to cargo / 55 passenger ship and renamed Lismoria). Used on United Kingdom to Canada service. Sold 1966 to Astroguarda Cia Nav. S.A., Panama (renamed Neon for final voyage to Taiwan). Scrapped 24/05/1967 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan by Nan Feng Steel Enterprises Company Limited.

S.S. Taroona - Photo Aboriginal word for seashell. Built by Alex Stephen and Sons Limited at Yard 543, Linthouse, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K. for Tasmanian Steamers Pty Ltd. 4,286 ton twin-screw oil burning, steam turbine ship. Cost 350,000 pounds. 2 funnels. Launched 22/11/1934. Completed January 1935. Length 103.1 metres. Beam 15.3 metres. Speed 18 knots. 450 passengers. Cargo could include 30 cars (loaded by ship's cranes). Used for the Bass Strait service 1935. 10,000 pounds fire damage May 1936 at 7 North Wharf (broke out amidships and destroyed furniture and fittings in many cabins on A deck; also part of the upper deck). Transported troops January 1942 from Auckland, New Zealand to Suva, Fiji. Requisitioned March 1942 by R.A.N. as troopship in New Guinea and around Australia. 480 troops and 190 tons of cargo were carried to Port Moresby, New Guinea on the first trip but she ran aground 26/03/1942 on Nateara reef (near Basilisk Beacon) at the entrance while leaving port. Taroona remained stuck for 3 days while efforts to refloat her failed. During this time, Japanese bombers attacked Seven Mile aerodrome, Port Moresby at least twice. No one knows why they didn't bomb the ship. Eventually, 3 naval vessels assisted the engines to free herself. Involved in Operation Lilliput (Stage 26) against the Japanese forces at Milne Bay, Buna, Gona and Oro Bay. Returned to Sydney 04/02/1946 with 644 troops. During World War 2, she transported about 93,432 troops and travelled 204,535 miles over 94 trips. Returned to Bass Strait service October 1946 after a refit (including 1 funnel removed). Sold 1959 to Typaldos Brothers Steam Ship Company, Athens and renamed Hellas. Scrapped Aliaga, Turkey 23/05/1989.

Tjitjalengka - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Nederlandsche Shipbuilders at Yard 271, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Launched 16/08/1938. Completed May 1939. 10,972 tons. Speed 14 knots. Single screw. Length 144.9 metres. Beam 19.7 metres. Requisitioned by Admiralty service 08/07/1942 and converted in Liverpool, England to hospital ship (able to transport 504 patients). Service in North Atlantic and Indian Ocean then transferred to British Pacific Fleet. Repatriated P.O.W.s (including 2/2 Pioneers) from Japan to Australia. On her final voyage, she carried invalids and naval casualties from Colombo and Durban to Liverpool, England and was then returned to her owners. 7,200 patients were admitted to Tjitjalengka during her career. Broken up 11/05/1968 in Hongkong by Ming Hing & Company. AWM id no. P01649.012

Van Heutz (Van Heutsz) - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Dutch K.P.M. shipping line transport ship. Built by Royal Schelde at Yard 180, Flushing, Netherlands. Launched 13/03/1926. Completed November 1926. 4,588 tons. Length 119 metres. Beam 15.9 metres. Speed 13 knots. Twin screws. 76 passengers in 2 classes and 2137 on deck. Employed in Deli-Straits-China service. Used as Allied troopship in South West Pacific 1942-1945. Seized and released by Chinese pirates December 1947. Transferred 1948 to Royal Interocean Lines. Returned 1957 to K.P.M. as Barentsz. Broken up 18/02/1959 in Hongkong.

Vita - Photo shows Vita in tow by H.M.A.S. Waterhen Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd at Wallsend for British India Steam Navigation Company Limited. Completed October 1914. 4,691 gross tons. 1,955 net. Length 390 feet. Beam 53 feet. Draught 24 feet. Speed 12 knots. Twin screws. Used immediately as troopship until refit in 1916 to hospital ship with 475 berths. Returned to owners in 1918. Used for Bombay, Karachi, Bushire and Basra commercial run between 1922 and 1939. May 1940 converted at Bombay into naval Hospital Ship No 8. September 1940 based at Aden. Transferred to eastern Mediterranean March 1941. 14/04/1941 attacked by German dive bombers when leaving Tobruk for Haifa with over 400 wounded. H.M.A.S. Waterhen towed Vita back to port to disembark the wounded then towed the ship to Alexandria. She returned to Bombay for repairs on 1 engine then returned to Aden. 09/04/1942 picked up 595 survivors from bombed (actual Japanese attack) H.M.S. Hermes and H.M.A.S. Vampire. Attended landings at Diego Suarez (Madagascar) December 1942, Kyaukpyu (Burma) April 1945 and Rangoon (Burma) May 1945. Recommenced passenger trade May 1946. 20/05/1953 sold for scrapping at Calcutta, India to Tulsiram Bhagwandas. AWM id no. P01810.001

Wanganella - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Harland and Wolff at Yard 849, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Launched 17/12/1929 as Achimota. Completed 29/11/1932. 9,576 tons. Speed 15 knots. Twin screws. Length 140.6 metres. Beam 19.5 metres. Draught 7.6 metres. Passenger liner (304 first class, 104 second class) from 12/01/1933 to 1941 on trans-Tasman Sea run between Australia (Melbourne and Sydney) and New Zealand (Auckland and Wellington). 28/12/1937 collision with trawler off New South Wales. 19/06/1940 assisted rescue of passengers from R.M.S. Niagara (which had struck a mine and sank off Auckland). Used as Allied hospital ship between 19/05/1941 and 1946 carrying wounded and the sick from Middle East, Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Borneo and South Pacific (13,385 wounded). Passenger liner 1946-1963. 19/01/1947 stranded on Barrett Reef (Wellington harbour entrance) for 18 days. Moored in Doubtful Sound 1963 to 1970 as hostel for workers during construction of Manapouri Power Station, New Zealand. Scrapped 05/06/1970 at Kaohsiung, Taiwan. AWM id no. 043248

H.M.A.S. Westralia - Photo (Armed Merchant Cruiser / Landing Ship Infantry). 4,717 ton passenger / cargo ship (8,108 tons full load). Built by Harland & Wolff, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom at Yard 843g, Govan, United Kingdom for Huddart Parker Ltd. Launched 25/04/1929. Completed 15/08/1929. Length 445 feet (131.4 metres). Beam 60 feet (18.4 metres). Draught 22 feet 6.5 inches. Speed 15 knots. Twin screws. Requisitioned 02/11/1939 for use as Armed Merchant Cruiser. Commissioned 17/01/1940. Armament as : Armed Merchant Cruiser 7 x 6-inch guns, 2 x 3-inch anti-aircraft guns. : Landing Ship Infantry 1 x 6-inch gun, 2 x 3-inch anti-aircraft guns, 12 x 20mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft guns. Carried Supermarine Walrus amphibian aircraft. Escort and patrol duty in East Indian waters 1940. 12/04/1940 Norwegian Fernlane captured and sent as prize to Singapore. Escort and patrol duty from Sumatra to Bombay and south to Mauritius until December 1940. Escort duty to New Zealand March 1941. Shipping protection Nauru and Ocean Island May 1941. Evacuated Nauru and Ocean Island civilians July 1941. Troop transport to Timor and New Guinea to December 1941. Australian coastal escort duty to August 1942. Accomodation ship for H.M.A.S. Assault, Port Stephens to December 1942. Refitted as Landing Ship Infantry at Sydney, New South Wales February to June 1943. U.S. troop transport to Goodenough Island, exercises and Arawe, New Britain operations to December 1943. U.S. troop transport to Cape Cretin, New Guinea January 1944. Attacked by Japanese aircraft on return 28/01/1944 (casualties). New Guinea waters February to April 1944 (including Hollandia landings). Refitted at Sydney June 1944. Troop transport from New Guinea bases July 1944. Solomon Islands exercises August 1944. Aitape, New Guinea September 1944. Leyte Gulf, Philippines landings October 1944. Lingayen, Philippines landings (unsuccessful Kamikaze attack by Japanese aircraft) January 1945. Fire in hold at Brisbane, Queensland March 1945. Balikpapan, Borneo landings July 1945. Troop and stores transport to New Guinea and Solomon Islands to end of war. Repatriated P.O.W.s to Australia. Decommissioned from Royal Australian Navy 19/09/1946. Provided service from Sydney to Kure, Japan for British Commonwealth Occupation Forces December 1947 to April 1949. Chartered by British Ministry of Transport as troop carrier in Mediterranean August 1949 to March 1950. Returned to owners after refit 27/03/1951. Australian interstate passenger ship to February 1959. Sold to Asian and Pacific Shipping Co. Ltd., Suva, Fiji 1959. Renamed 1959 to Delfino and converted to livestock carrier. Renamed 1961 to Woolambi. Broken up September 1962 in Hirao, Japan. AWM id no. 301714

S.S. Wusueh - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Taikoo at Yard 253, Hong Kong for China Navigation Company Limited. Launched 1931. 3,009 tons. Length 89.9 metres. Beam 14.1 metres. Speed 12 knots. Twin screws. Renamed 1950 to Ladybird. Renamed 1953 to Wusueh. Broken up June 1953 at Hongkong.

Yamagata Maru - Photo Passenger / cargo ship. Built by Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company in Yard 253, Nagasaki, Japan. Keel laid down 30/08/1915. Launched 03/05/1916. Completed 03/07/1916. 3,792 tons. Speed 13.5 knots. One screw. Length 105.2 metres. Beam 15.2 metres. Japanese hellship used to transport slave labour (including prisoner of war) under horrendously disgusting conditions. Thousands died in transit to different work camps. Hellships were often attacked by the Allies as they were marked like any other enemy shipping. Torpedoed and sunk 16/04/1944 in Moro Gulf, southwest Mindanao, Philippines (33 Japanese lost) in position 06º52'N, 123º47'E by Gato class submarine U.S.S. Redfin (SS-272) commanded by M. H. Austin.